vitamin b12 deficiency symptoms you need to know

Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Symptoms You Need to Know

Despite the various sources of Vitamin B12 in our diet, vitamin B12 deficiency is the most prevalent. To stay healthy, you must consume the recommended daily folate dose. Vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms vary both physically and physiologically. 

In a world where wellness trends and fad diets dominate, it's easy to overlook the essential nutrients our bodies crave. Among them, Vitamin B12 takes center stage as a critical player in our overall health and vitality. 

From the early signs and symptoms to the potential long-term consequences, this blog post will unravel the complexities of Vitamin B12 deficiency, its symptoms, and preventive measures. 

What is Vitamin B12 Deficiency? 

Vitamin B12 or Folate deficiency is when your body falls short of vitamin B12. It might be because you need to add more vitamin B12 sources to your diet, or your vitamin B12 absorption has been impaired. 

Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including 

  • the formation of red blood cells, 
  • DNA synthesis, nerve function, 
  • and brain health. 

Our bodies cannot produce vitamin B12 independently, so we rely on external sources such as animal products (meat, fish, dairy) and fortified foods or supplements to meet our B12 requirements.

When the body lacks sufficient vitamin B12, it can lead to various symptoms and health complications. Over time, if left untreated, the deficiency can make you prone to alarming consequences such as anemia, nerve damage, cognitive impairment, and even psychiatric disorders.

vitamin b12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Symptoms 

Since Vitamin B12 is involved in different life processes, even a minute decrease in vitamin B12 spike can impair multiple body functions. 

Pale Skin 

As vitamin B12 is associated with red blood cell production, its deficiency can lead to pale and less radiant skin due to less hemoglobin. This also comes with affected blood circulation to various body organs, thus resulting in pale skin or jaundice

Shortness of Breath and Dizziness 

Vitamin B12 is essential for forming healthy red blood cells in the bone marrow. Without sufficient vitamin B12, the production of red blood cells may be impaired, leading to a condition known as megaloblastic anemia. 

In megaloblastic anemia, the red blood cells become more significant than normal and cannot function correctly. This results in a decreased ability to carry oxygen throughout the body. With inadequate oxygen delivery, individuals may experience shortness of breath, especially during physical activity or exertion.

In addition to this, vitamin B12 also regulates neuromuscular functions. Inadequate intake of vitamin B12 can affect the myelin sheath surrounding the nerve fibers. The nerves responsible for controlling breathing and maintaining balance can be affected, resulting in shortness of breath and dizziness.

Vision Problems 

Vitamin B12 deficiency can affect the optical nerve, causing optic neuropathy. It may cause decreased visual acuity, changes in color perception, or even vision loss in severe cases. 

Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to blurred vision, making objects appear fuzzy or unclear. This occurs because vitamin B12 is involved in the production of myelin.

Some individuals with vitamin B12 deficiency may experience increased sensitivity to light, a condition known as photophobia. 

Cognitive Impairment 

Vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters: 

  • Dopamine 
  • Serotonin 
  • Norepinephrine 

A deficiency in vitamin B12 can affect the production and balance of these neurotransmitters, which can contribute to cognitive impairment, including difficulties with memory, attention, and problem-solving. 

While the exact mechanisms are not fully understood, it is believed that vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to the accumulation of specific proteins in the brain, leading to the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

 Vitamin B12 deficiency can increase homocysteine levels, an amino acid usually metabolized by vitamin B12. Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. 

cognitive impairment

Oral changes 

Vitamin B12 deficiency causes swollen gums and sore tongue. Its scarcity also promotes mouth ulcers or cracks in the corners of the mouth. Altered taste perception or a decreased sense of taste are progressive symptoms that worsen if left untreated.

Digestive Issues

Digestive disturbances such as diarrhea or constipation can be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Some individuals with vitamin B12 deficiency may experience feelings of nausea and may occasionally vomit. Its deficiency can also cause a decrease in appetite, leading to a reduced desire to eat. This loss of appetite can contribute to inadequate intake of essential nutrients, including vitamin B12, exacerbating the deficiency.

Cardiac Issues 

The most prevalent condition due to Vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia and Hyperhomocysteinemia. Pernicious anemia involves a more significant number of red blood cells within the body, making the heart enlarge and hence tricky to pump blood. On the other hand, hyperhomocysteinemia involves a high level of homocysteine which makes a person prone to cardiac arrest. 


What Causes Vitamin B12 Deficiency

There are various causes of vitamin B12 deficiency. The most common include: 

  1. Lack of intrinsic factor 
  2. Impaired vitamin absorption 
  3. Aging 
  4. long-term use of antacids or proton pump inhibitors
  5. Surgical removal of the intestine, thus impairing absorption

How is vitamin B12 Deficiency Detected and Treated? 


Since vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms relate to the symptoms of many other diseases, it often goes undetected or confused with other ailments. 

The best ways to detect vitamin B12 deficiency are: 

  • Blood Test: Blood tests are essential for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency. Blood tests may also measure other markers, such as homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels, which can be elevated in B12 deficiency.
  • Intrinsic factor antibodies:  if there is suspicion of pernicious anemia (an autoimmune condition affecting vitamin B12 absorption), specific antibodies called intrinsic factor antibodies may be tested.

  • Treatment 
    • Vitamin B12 supplementation: Since it is an essential nutrient, it is best to add multivitamin supplementation to avoid all deficiencies. This can be administered orally, in B12 tablets or sublingual (under the tongue) drops, or through intramuscular injections. The appropriate dosage and route of administration will depend on the severity of the deficiency and the underlying cause. The best way to treat heart issues due to vitamin B12 deficiency is to add supplements such as CardioCan that work both for the heart and other parts of the body. 
    • Dietary changes: to prevent or treat vitamin B12 deficiency, it is best to treat it with a proper diet that provides you with the vitamin B12 needed. Animal-based products such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy are excellent sources of vitamin B12; for individuals following a vegan or vegetarian diet, fortified foods and B12 supplements may be recommended.


    In conclusion, vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to a wide range of symptoms affecting our health. From physical manifestations like fatigue, weakness, and pale skin to neurological symptoms such as tingling sensations and cognitive impairments, the impact of B12 deficiency can be profound. 

    Additionally, digestive issues like loss of appetite and gastrointestinal discomfort may also be present. Recognizing these symptoms is crucial for early detection and timely intervention. If you experience any of these signs, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment. By addressing vitamin B12 deficiency, we can alleviate these symptoms, safeguard our overall well-being, and pave the way for a healthier and more vibrant life.

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